With this article, I intend to point out one of several possible reasons for the problems experienced by aquarists from time to time when they try to create and maintain the right living conditions for their fish, namely the lack of humin in the aquariumwater and food!

Since the impact and influence of humans applies to all life on Earth, they also affect fish in captivity and, of course, also on humans. After all, we drink the same water that we offer our fish to live in.

The article is based on the latest available research on humine impact on living cells and is written in an easy-to-read form so everyone should be able to acquire the content and independently relate to the information and conclusions.


The main topics of the article are:

                                                       • Evolution and history.

                                                       • Fulvic acid's chemistry

                                                       • Fulvic in our food.

                                                       • Humin substances.

                                                       • your aquarium.

                                                       • Conclusions.

                                                       • Summary.

                                                       • Product Overview and Price Comparison.

                                                       • Referrals and references

 

Evolution og historie

75 million years ago, Earth was an optimal place for organic growth. There was a rich humus-containing soil filled with a wealth of minerals, trace elements and billions of microbes. The minerals were not washed out and eroded into the oceans, so the vegetation was very lush and plentiful, as we also see it from deposits from that time. The deposits contain large amounts of humus and human substances, broken down from the dense and abundant vegetation.

Leonardite deposits from the Middle West, USA

In the deposits, some unusual layers have been found, which geologists call Leonardite. They originate from the lush vegetation, but never became oil or coal. They reached only half way. They are reasonably rare, but are found in different areas around the world. They are very rich in a very small humus component, an organic and complex molecular structure, called fulvic acids.

Fulvic acids are part of the human structure in rich composting soil and are believed to be one of life's most important building blocks. It is an acid created in extremely small amounts and the last part of a long bacterial degradation process.

Our vast rainforests in South America, Africa and Asia are places where decomposition is constantly taking place on a gigantic scale. Here, this acid is found in large quantities and it provides the basis for a richly varied and extremely adapted life. As long as there is enough oxygen present, the bacteria will continue the degradation work and therefore they exist wherever decomposition or degradation is allowed without human interference in the form of fertilizers, insect and weed control with chemicals and pesticides and soil pulping excessive cultivation.

Only 3% of our Earth is made up of tropical rain forest, but 80% of our species live here so there is good reason that the conditions here are optimal and we must of course do whatever we can to , make sure that they constantly persist.

 

Humin in our food.

Most of our plants and crops should contain sufficient amounts or at least some of the fulvic acid and its mineral complexes, but unfortunately only the few crops that make it.


Naturally, when the fulvic acid is missing in our crops, it is also missing from the food we consume. Viewed from a human perspective, it would be reasonable to a  ssume that we should take fulvic acid complexes through the plants we eat. Much suggests that it was originally the way nature intended. But that is unfortunately not the case anymore and it has not been for many decades in the western world.

nutrient-poor Danish soil

Today, our soil is diseased by pinned agricultural practices, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, erosion and mineral depletion, and the farmland is maintained in this sterile state, which largely prevents microbial activity.

Because of this, our crops are "sick" and contain very little nutrition and especially minerals. As the generations before us, there should also be sufficient fulvic acid in the plants we eat today, but the acids are missing and thus they are missing in our diet, and as we later look at, they are extremely important for the metabolism of our cells.

Researchers have found that nutritionally we need 90 different nutrients in our diet. Over 60 of these are minerals and trace elements. The Fulvic acid is carrying at least 70, but we do not get them anymore in sufficient quantities through the diet we consume, so "dietary supplements" have become a mantra over the past decades.

If we feed and re-mineralize our agricultural areas, we would only have little benefit from this without the active participation of the microbes. A re-mineralization of our bodies without the fulvic acid that should be contained in the plants we eat is equally beneficial. More than ever, people are sick of degenerative deficiency diseases. With fulvic acid as a dietary supplement, it is possible to return to a more natural and a far better nutritional benefit, of what we eat. It just don’t increase the quality of our food.

So despite the fact that the fulvic acid properties are recognized and the effects of use as well documented and that the health benefits are obvious and clear to anyone interested in the subject, it's not just that of nature's many self-made products, as we see most of, on the supermarket shelves.

As consumers, we should therefore consider promoting agricultural conversion into more natural forms of production, by supporting farmers who are already aware of the importance and potential of the human and fulvic acids. Not only for the sake of the quality of crops, but because the fulvic acid has potential as a global healer for a human being on the way.

The human substances

Plant litter are all the organic matter that is on the ground but has not yet broken down. Plant litter can be leaves, bark, flowers, seeds, tree trunks, paper, feathers, hair, excrement and dead animals. Everything will eventually break down. The organisms that break down the joints are called detritivors or breakers, and they acquire substance and energy by eating dead organic matter. Most of the breakers live in the upper layers of soil, where the conditions are favorable to them: here is the substance to live off and here is a good environment with sufficient oxygen and water.

After decomposition, absorption of nitrogen and other mineral substances, as well as leaching - there is a residue that we together call humin substances. They are the sum of what is left of the once-living organisms, plants and animals. Algae, bacteria and fungi translate, utilize and recycle the last parts, so many tons of lead eventually get to a few grams of humus.       

Humus

Humus is the state of organic matter after microbacterial degradation. Humus can be divided into 3 subgroups according to their ability to dissolve in water: humine, humic acid and fulvic acid.Her vil jeg review the 3 components individually because they are relevant to you who have aquarium fish:

Humus layer in Denmark 

Humin

Humin is not soluble in water. Included in the group of humins are the tannins. They are also part of the living wood pulp and are what give the water its recognizable yellowish brown color. There are 3 main groups of tannins, but only one of them functions as light acid, popularly called tannic acid. It is a bitter plant polyphenol, it binds and compresses proteins. The contracting effect is that makes it feel dry and tight in your mouth after drinking red wine or eating immature fruit. One tanners animal skin for leather with tannic acid. Tannins are incompatible with alkalis, heavy metals, iron, lime water (calcium hydroxide), metallic salts, highly oxidizing substances and zinc sulfates. It is a generally misconception that black tea types should contain tannic acid. It does not make oak and chestnut either. In most cases, there are talk of neutral tannins or flavonoids, antioxidants that are carriers of taste and aroma.

In soft-water aquariums, the tannic acid may contribute to a lower pH decrease, but mixed up in Danish tap water, even relatively large amounts of tannic acid will have no effect over a very strong wave drainage of the water. 

 

Humin Acid


Humin Acid is only soluble in alkaline water, ie at pH above 7 and is manufactured industrially in an alkaline dehydrated powder form to be used as a fertilizer additive in agriculture. Therefore, the Humin acid is also not applicable in soft water aquariums or for breeding South American fish. It will, of course, give a tan of the water, but have no significant effect on the fish's metabolism. Mostly humin acid will precipitate in its alkaline form and settle on plants, bases and decorations, thus acting more like fertilizer and increasing the basis for unwanted algal growth by binding the nutrients. Humin acid has no pH-lowering effect, regardless of concentration - on the contrary.

Genuine plant-derived humins should be a liquid extract of 100% organic origin and have a slightly acidic pH. However, this does not apply to the industrialized extraction process of humic acid, which does, by extraction than in an alkaline state. Humin acids are extracted by precipitation with hydrochloric acid and bind to alkalis and minerals. Humins are then dehydrated and used in granular form for soil improvement in agriculture.

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic acid is the smallest of the humin substances and is biologically extremely active. Unlike humin acid, fulvic acid is fully soluble throughout the pH range and will therefore have its full effect in any aquatic environment. Due to its low molecular weight, it has the ability to easily bind minerals and trace elements into their molecular structure, make them dissolve and become mobile volatile complexes. Thus, the Fulvic acid carries all known minerals and trace elements as part of its molecular complexity. These, therefore, end up in an ideal natural form that can be absorbed by plant cells and interact with living cells. Plants absorb lightly large amounts of fulvic acid and can maintain it in their structure.


Low molecular weight substances can penetrate cell membranes and high molecular weight substances, can not. Fulvic acid in conjunction with water is very low molecular weight and thus, in its pure form, 100% absorbable to living cells. In addition, fulvic acid lowers the surface tension and allows the water to penetrate other organic molecules and it has been proven that the fulvic acid increases the solubility of otherwise insoluble organic materials at least 20 times more than water alone. Fulvic acid can 'fix' organic compounds with high molecular weight and make them water soluble.

Fulvic acid also has the ability to over time bind inorganic trace elements, metals and other inorganic compounds and convert them into organic molecules, making them soluble, low molecular weight and absorbable to the cells.

Thus, a water solution may contain a much higher mineral concentration when dissolved in fulvic acid than it would otherwise hold. That's why the fulvic acid is nature's own perfect vehicle for transporting minerals to living cells. Fulvic acid's unique ability to bind, increase and amplify the absorption of minerals, vitamins, trace elements and nutrition and bring them into the living cells makes it one of nature's very great miracles.

In fact, it has been found that fulvic acid complexes are essential for plants to remain healthy, and the same applies to all living, for humans, for animals and fish. In extreme environments like Blackwater Lakes and Rivers, they simply make life possible. Fish could not exist under these conditions without the fulvic acid's ability to transport the few minerals present as calcium and magnesium and trace elements into the fish cells.

It is also documentable that fulvic acid is important in the functionality of fish's immune system, it affects growth, increases life, prevents DNA damage, charges heavy metals and organic pollutants, suppresses cyanobacteria, regulates gill function, protects fish from environmental physiological stress, it is low oxygen levels , temperature fluctuations, pH shift, TDS changes, ammonia and nitrite and contribute to a faster recovery from these environmental stressors.

Since it has not been possible to synthesize and industrialize production until now, because the acid can not be clearly defined because of its extremely complex nature, there has been a limited scientific interest in researching the subject further in the course of recent decades.

Unlike the humin acid, which is extracted with hydrochloric acid, the fulvic acid is extracted with alcohol. The Fulvic acid is therefore the purest in its form and as a carrier, it comes with an empty lad, ready to move the trace elements, minerals and vitamins that the cells need. Today, it has become possible to extract fulvic acid industrially from ordinary spring water and the process is patented worldwide.

 

Common to the humine substances as a whole is that they have proven antifungal, antiparasitic and antibacterial properties that inhibit the growth of, among others:

Aeromonas hydrophila, which causes tumors and tail and veins. May be infected with humans and is known as tourist sickness (diarrhea).

A. sobria, causes infection in wounds and most of the type is today resistant to penicillins. May infect humans.

Edwardsiella iclaluri, among others, is the cause of Hulsyge (HITH), which mainly affects cichlids and barbers.

E. tarda, which causes organ failure, various eye diseases including popeye, attacks smoldering and gives inflamatory gills.

Pseudomonas fluorescence resulting in a finding advice.

Escherichia coli that causes bowel and digestive problems. Exposes explosively at 34-35 C. Can infect humans.

 

 

Your Aquarium

The dynamics of evolution, the continued development of life, produce what is necessary to preserve and prolong life. Now that the humin substances are found in lakes covered by hundreds of meters of ice in Antarctica, there is a reason why they are there; - they are a basic necessity for life!


When all trees, branches and leaves, as well as dead animals and insects end up in the woods and in our lakes and streams, they are broken down by bacteria and a substrate called detritus or humus is formed. When it rains, the decayed organic substances are released and rinsed through ditches and streams into our water systems. All natural waters therefore contain humine substances. It is not only the Amazon rainforests, the Mississippi River, the Danube and the Gudenå, but also the great oceans.    

     

Tannin-filled waterhole in the Amazon

Until a decade ago, science considered any influence of humine substances on aquatic life as "anecdotal". Recent research has now shown that humine substances have a very important and direct physiological impact on aquatic life.

This may be best emphasized in a study conducted at the Humboldt University of Berlin, the Department of Biology, where researchers concluded that:

"It seems that dissolved fulvic should be regarded as an abiotic ecological driving force, something less obvious than temperature, nutrients or light."

Humine substances, once considered a nerded aquaproduct, accepted only by blackwater enthusiasts, should instead be considered as an essential component of any aquarium, almost as important as temperature and food.

They should therefore also be present in your aquarium - for your fish's sake and for your pleasure because you want your fish to thrive. They grow better because they absorb the diet better, they are less ill because the pressure of unwanted bacteria is kept down and therefore they acknowledge by showing their true behaviors, colors and youthfulness.

Many may think that it does not matter or think; "My tapewater contains enough of these things." The problem is just that the humans interact with chemicals used in the purification of drinking water, resulting in the release of other chemicals that contaminate your tap water, eg haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes. As a result, our water companies try to remove humine substances from the drinking water prior to the supply of cleaning chemicals. This means that our aquarium is essentially not containing the connections that millions of years of evolution have allowed our fish to exploit and to which they depend. Even spring water and rainwater contain significantly less fulvic acid than the lakes and rivers were aquarelic originally from.

So, when the humine substances, both directly and indirectly, have been removed from our tap water and become aquarium fish dependent on getting the vital minerals and trace elements, what can we do?

Of course, you can, of course, wash a few of the human substances, and it will mostly be tannins, through the soaking of spagnum, peat and various plant materials, but you can never reach the concentration of fulvic acid that matches nature and hence your fish needs. You can not because fulvic acid alone produces and liberates from the human substances via a bacterial degradation and as the last part of the process.

Conclusions


Denmark Statistics states that Danish wholesalers, importers and retailers collect 1.5 million ornamental and aquarium fish homes a year. In parallel there is a significant trade in domestic fish. Denmark Statistics also states that there are 80,000 Danish homes with aquariums. If we compare this information, it means that every Danish aquarium is supplied close to 25 new residents annually! It goes without saying that there would be much haste if there were no deaths' many ... annually!

We now know that this is largely due to the lack of humine substances in our aquarium and in the food we give our fish. The immune system of the fish is fundamentally weakened because of a life without sufficient access to the vital minerals, vitamins and trace elements. It gives bacteria and flagellates free space.

Blackwater enthusiasts and discus nerds who have watered peat, Capatta - and oak leaves and ellecones have certainly done the right thing. They have supplied tannic acid, perhaps a little humin and stabilized a soft water aquarium to a pH below 7, thus reducing the living conditions of harmful bacteria, parasites and fungi.

We now know that these natural products have an inhibitory effect on unwanted bacteria and fungi in the aquarium and thus indirectly affect the wellbeing of your fish. However, they do not directly interact with the fish's endothermic metabolism and metabolism.

 We now know that the only way to release fulvic acid is the bacterial decomposting of organic materials. The degradation requires oxygen in a balanced balanced nitrogen cycle. It is possible to establish this by slow addition of compostable leaves and twigs in the aquarium, but it will create conditions that are difficult to control and it is definitely not for beginners, as it requires thorough knowledge of the aquarium's biology.

We now know, that industrial products sold in the aquarium stores containing humin and humin acid are alkaline and not soluble in water and therefore are not what they care for and contribute nothing but a yellowing of the aquarium.

Most wholesalers and retailers who import aquarium fish claim that they acclimatize the fishes and enrich them for other water types that better match the customers' tapewater. But the weaning only takes place temporarily, as fish in an unprecedented number die within the first year of life in the aquarium.

We now know, that most fish dies sooner or later and if nothing else, as far earlier than they should!

Aquarists who hold wild-caught fish can, if any, talk about the need to establish an aquarium with water values ​​that fully match the fish's natural habitat. And if you wish for successful breeding of fish from the tropical rainforest, it is completely indisputable.

We now know, that experience has shown that the external negative impact on the fish is greatly reduced in sour and soft water and now understand why a switch to alkaline water can have fatal consequences for the fish. Experiences buyers of some of the more delicate species such as discus and neon fish constantly in the hard way.

In spite of this, many aquarists will certainly claim to have experienced long-term success with aquarium fish. It is not questionable. However, there is a reason why fish such as Oscars and Discus develop diseases such as HITH, that we see neondiseases, popeye and "sticky tail" that the discus plague killed tens of thousands of fish. These dreaded diseases are only seen in captive fish. In addition, larger fish only have an average life of 3 years when it should rightly be at least 10 or more.

 

It is up to our aquarium enthusiasts to understand what the lack of fulvic acid has on our fish. It is our sole responsibility to create the best possible living conditions for fish we choose to keep in captivity even though we do not have the opportunity to get water from the jungle, even rainwater from our own roof. Today we can strive to create the most natural habitat and simulate nature, using the addition of fulvic acid, as a preventive action.

If we do all of this, we will experience healthier and stronger fish that show both colors and behaviors, which we did not know before and we will experience fish that are far less ill and live longer.

  

Summary

Fulvic acid is the only substance that interacts directly with living cells by acting as a carrier of vital minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. It can occur only by an organic bacterial degradation of humus and humin substances for a long time.

It is considered today for one of the most important building blocks of life.

It is the only humin acid that can help reduce water's acidity and conductivity.

It can not be manufactured synthetically or industrially, but can today be extracted from nature.

 

Fulvic acid can

      Transports minerals up to 60x its own size into living cells.

      Increase the absorption of nutrition by bringing it through the cell walls.

      Inhibit the presence of unwanted bacteria.

      Inhibit the growth of fungi and fungus.

      Bind and break down herbicides, pesticides and other syringes.

      Binding heavy metals also those we know are harmful to living cells.

      Bind and transport antioxidants.

      Bind free radicals in cancer-bearing T cells.

      Contribute to balance of calcium / magnesium content.

      Act like acid buffer in soft water.

      Protect the internal organs, digestive systems and intestines.

      Strengthen the mucus layer.

      Strengthen the immune system.

      Support wound healing and healing.

      Increase fertility.

      Increase the willingness to lay and reproduce.

      Works stress-reducing.

      Accelerates the absorption of nitrogen into plants.

      Participates in the photosynthesis of the plants.

      Color water yellowly depending on concentration.

Product Overview 

If after this presentation of fulvic's significance for the quality of life and life of your fish, consider to delight them with a few drops, here is an overview of producers, suppliers and webshops with prices listed with their own recommended doses per 100 liters of aquariums per week .

In the form, the recommended dose is converted to the cost per 100 liters of aquariums per week, so you can see what is best and cheapest to use in the long run.

Keep in mind that most producers name their products with the word "humin", but do not indicate whether it is actually humin in its alkaline form partially dissolved in demineralized water and to what extent fulvic acid should be represented.

Since it is significantly cheaper to produce humin in alkaline powder form, but without the effect that we now have at fulvic acid, it was only from the year 2015 that a recognized industry standard has been obtained to measure the presence and concentration of fulvic acid, this assumption makes good sense.

Therefore, you can not be sure of the content of the product unless a product declaration is included.

Your fish will benefit best by daily addition of fulvic acid, as stability is preferable, rather than weekly peaks. 8 drops correspond to 1 ml and recommend the manufacturer, for example, a weekly dose of 10 ml per 100 liters, so it will be 10/7 = ~ 1.5 ml per day and your 300 liter aquarium will result in 0.015 x 300 = 4.5 ml per day and thus 4.5ml x 8 drops = 36 drops daily.

If you belong to the aquariums who change aquariums at fixed intervals, you should compensate for the amount of replacement and then continue the daily or weekly supply. With the regular water switches you can expect the highest to use approx. 2 liters a year.

If you do not like the slightly yellowish color your aquarium gets, you can reduce the amount or apply a more white light on the Kelvin 8000 to 12000.

You can not overdose with fulvic acid, but you can clearly underestimate ....

Referencer:

Christian E. W. Steinberg,Ecology of Humic Substances in Freshwaters. E.G Heinrich, The root of all diseases.Studies on the antimicrobial effect of natural and synthetic humic acids. Ansorg R., et al., Arxeimittelforschung, 1978. Vol. 28, Issue 12, pages 2195-2198. Humates and inflammation. Kuhnert, M.; et al. Arch. E-p. Veterinarmed., 1982; Vol. 36;pages 169-177.Thomassen, B. P. H.; Faust, R. H. Conference Paper IFOAM; IFOAM 2000, the world grows organic international scientific conference, August 2000, Basle. Page 339

https://www.springer.com/la/book/9783540439226

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